La Palma eruption – 6th November 2021
There has been minimal evolution in the last few days with regards to the visible eruptive activity and the progress of the lava flows. The furthest south flow, number 11, is almost inactive, although an increased contribution of lava was seen affecting flow number 3 slightly further north, causing some small overflows of the channel. Additionally, a generally increase of lava emission rate was observed at around 6pm local time. Elsewhere, the appearance of yellow-green sulphur deposits on the main cone has been noted, which have formed because of favourable cooling conditions that produce these deposits. Seismicity continues to decrease relative to the last week, with 35 earthquakes being recorded mostly at intermediate (10-15 km) depths, with the day’s largest earthquake being a mbLg 4.5 event at 36 km depth. Favourable meteorological conditions for air quality and the operation of the airport continue.
A local 9 cm deformation has been recorded at the Jedey LP03 station closest to the eruption site, although no significant signals are seen in the other proximal GPS stations, with slight deflation at distant stations. SO2 emissions were estimated to be >10,000 tons per day, whilst the ash and gas plume reached 2500 m. Satellite measurements suggests a downward trend in the SO2 emissions since the start of the eruption. Tremor showed a 7-hour intensification from 6 pm local time coinciding with the increase in eruptive activity. SO2 levels were between reasonably good and fair levels, although most of the fair levels were seen at the Los Llanos and Puntagorda stations, with the hourly threshold (350 μg/m3) at midday as well as the daily threshold (125 μg/m3) being exceeded at the latter. 24-hour moving average PM10 levels remained at extremely unfavourable levels at Los Llanos, whilst PM10 levels remained much lower at the rest of the stations.
Sources: Government of the Canary Islands, PEVOLCA, Involcan, IGN, DSN, Cabildo La Palma, 112 Canarias, Tolouse VAAC, Copernicus EMS
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